AuthenticatorBase.java

/*
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
 * the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */
package org.apache.catalina.authenticator;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.security.Principal;
import java.util.Locale;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Optional;
import java.util.Set;

import javax.security.auth.Subject;
import javax.security.auth.callback.CallbackHandler;

import jakarta.security.auth.message.AuthException;
import jakarta.security.auth.message.AuthStatus;
import jakarta.security.auth.message.MessageInfo;
import jakarta.security.auth.message.config.AuthConfigFactory;
import jakarta.security.auth.message.config.AuthConfigProvider;
import jakarta.security.auth.message.config.RegistrationListener;
import jakarta.security.auth.message.config.ServerAuthConfig;
import jakarta.security.auth.message.config.ServerAuthContext;
import jakarta.servlet.DispatcherType;
import jakarta.servlet.ServletContext;
import jakarta.servlet.ServletException;
import jakarta.servlet.http.Cookie;
import jakarta.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import jakarta.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.apache.catalina.Authenticator;
import org.apache.catalina.Contained;
import org.apache.catalina.Container;
import org.apache.catalina.Context;
import org.apache.catalina.Globals;
import org.apache.catalina.LifecycleException;
import org.apache.catalina.Realm;
import org.apache.catalina.Session;
import org.apache.catalina.TomcatPrincipal;
import org.apache.catalina.Valve;
import org.apache.catalina.authenticator.jaspic.MessageInfoImpl;
import org.apache.catalina.connector.Request;
import org.apache.catalina.connector.Response;
import org.apache.catalina.filters.CorsFilter;
import org.apache.catalina.filters.RemoteIpFilter;
import org.apache.catalina.realm.GenericPrincipal;
import org.apache.catalina.util.FilterUtil;
import org.apache.catalina.util.SessionIdGeneratorBase;
import org.apache.catalina.util.StandardSessionIdGenerator;
import org.apache.catalina.valves.RemoteIpValve;
import org.apache.catalina.valves.ValveBase;
import org.apache.juli.logging.Log;
import org.apache.juli.logging.LogFactory;
import org.apache.tomcat.util.ExceptionUtils;
import org.apache.tomcat.util.descriptor.web.FilterDef;
import org.apache.tomcat.util.descriptor.web.FilterMap;
import org.apache.tomcat.util.descriptor.web.LoginConfig;
import org.apache.tomcat.util.descriptor.web.SecurityConstraint;
import org.apache.tomcat.util.http.FastHttpDateFormat;
import org.apache.tomcat.util.http.RequestUtil;
import org.apache.tomcat.util.res.StringManager;

/**
 * Basic implementation of the <b>Valve</b> interface that enforces the <code>&lt;security-constraint&gt;</code>
 * elements in the web application deployment descriptor. This functionality is implemented as a Valve so that it can be
 * omitted in environments that do not require these features. Individual implementations of each supported
 * authentication method can subclass this base class as required.
 * <p>
 * <b>USAGE CONSTRAINT</b>: When this class is utilized, the Context to which it is attached (or a parent Container in a
 * hierarchy) must have an associated Realm that can be used for authenticating users and enumerating the roles to which
 * they have been assigned.
 * <p>
 * <b>USAGE CONSTRAINT</b>: This Valve is only useful when processing HTTP requests. Requests of any other type will
 * simply be passed through.
 *
 * @author Craig R. McClanahan
 */
public abstract class AuthenticatorBase extends ValveBase implements Authenticator, RegistrationListener {

    private final Log log = LogFactory.getLog(AuthenticatorBase.class); // must not be static

    /**
     * "Expires" header always set to Date(1), so generate once only
     */
    private static final String DATE_ONE = FastHttpDateFormat.formatDate(1);

    /**
     * The string manager for this package.
     */
    protected static final StringManager sm = StringManager.getManager(AuthenticatorBase.class);

    /**
     * Authentication header
     */
    protected static final String AUTH_HEADER_NAME = "WWW-Authenticate";

    /**
     * Default authentication realm name.
     */
    protected static final String REALM_NAME = "Authentication required";

    protected static String getRealmName(Context context) {
        if (context == null) {
            // Very unlikely
            return REALM_NAME;
        }

        LoginConfig config = context.getLoginConfig();
        if (config == null) {
            return REALM_NAME;
        }

        String result = config.getRealmName();
        if (result == null) {
            return REALM_NAME;
        }

        return result;
    }

    // ------------------------------------------------------ Constructor

    public AuthenticatorBase() {
        super(true);
    }

    // ----------------------------------------------------- Instance Variables

    /**
     * Should a session always be used once a user is authenticated? This may offer some performance benefits since the
     * session can then be used to cache the authenticated Principal, hence removing the need to authenticate the user
     * via the Realm on every request. This may be of help for combinations such as BASIC authentication used with the
     * JNDIRealm or DataSourceRealms. However there will also be the performance cost of creating and GC'ing the
     * session. By default, a session will not be created.
     */
    protected boolean alwaysUseSession = false;

    /**
     * Should we cache authenticated Principals if the request is part of an HTTP session?
     */
    protected boolean cache = true;

    /**
     * Should the session ID, if any, be changed upon a successful authentication to prevent a session fixation attack?
     */
    protected boolean changeSessionIdOnAuthentication = true;

    /**
     * The Context to which this Valve is attached.
     */
    protected Context context = null;

    /**
     * Flag to determine if we disable proxy caching, or leave the issue up to the webapp developer.
     */
    protected boolean disableProxyCaching = true;

    /**
     * Flag to determine if we disable proxy caching with headers incompatible with IE.
     */
    protected boolean securePagesWithPragma = false;

    /**
     * The Java class name of the secure random number generator class to be used when generating SSO session
     * identifiers. The random number generator class must be self-seeding and have a zero-argument constructor. If not
     * specified, an instance of {@link java.security.SecureRandom} will be generated.
     */
    protected String secureRandomClass = null;

    /**
     * The name of the algorithm to use to create instances of {@link java.security.SecureRandom} which are used to
     * generate SSO session IDs. If no algorithm is specified, SHA1PRNG is used. If SHA1PRNG is not available, the
     * platform default will be used. To use the platform default (which may be SHA1PRNG), specify the empty string. If
     * an invalid algorithm and/or provider is specified the SecureRandom instances will be created using the defaults.
     * If that fails, the SecureRandom instances will be created using platform defaults.
     */
    protected String secureRandomAlgorithm = SessionIdGeneratorBase.DEFAULT_SECURE_RANDOM_ALGORITHM;

    /**
     * The name of the provider to use to create instances of {@link java.security.SecureRandom} which are used to
     * generate session SSO IDs. If no provider is specified the platform default is used. If an invalid algorithm
     * and/or provider is specified the SecureRandom instances will be created using the defaults. If that fails, the
     * SecureRandom instances will be created using platform defaults.
     */
    protected String secureRandomProvider = null;

    /**
     * The name of the JASPIC callback handler class. If none is specified the default
     * {@link org.apache.catalina.authenticator.jaspic.CallbackHandlerImpl} will be used.
     */
    protected String jaspicCallbackHandlerClass = "org.apache.catalina.authenticator.jaspic.CallbackHandlerImpl";

    /**
     * Should the auth information (remote user and auth type) be returned as response headers for a forwarded/proxied
     * request? When the {@link RemoteIpValve} or {@link RemoteIpFilter} mark a forwarded request with the
     * {@link Globals#REQUEST_FORWARDED_ATTRIBUTE} this authenticator can return the values of
     * {@link HttpServletRequest#getRemoteUser()} and {@link HttpServletRequest#getAuthType()} as response headers
     * {@code remote-user} and {@code auth-type} to a reverse proxy. This is useful, e.g., for access log consistency or
     * other decisions to make.
     */

    protected boolean sendAuthInfoResponseHeaders = false;

    protected SessionIdGeneratorBase sessionIdGenerator = null;

    /**
     * The SingleSignOn implementation in our request processing chain, if there is one.
     */
    protected SingleSignOn sso = null;

    private AllowCorsPreflight allowCorsPreflight = AllowCorsPreflight.NEVER;

    private volatile String jaspicAppContextID = null;
    private volatile Optional<AuthConfigProvider> jaspicProvider = null;
    private volatile CallbackHandler jaspicCallbackHandler = null;


    // ------------------------------------------------------------- Properties

    public String getAllowCorsPreflight() {
        return allowCorsPreflight.name().toLowerCase(Locale.ENGLISH);
    }

    public void setAllowCorsPreflight(String allowCorsPreflight) {
        this.allowCorsPreflight = AllowCorsPreflight.valueOf(allowCorsPreflight.trim().toUpperCase(Locale.ENGLISH));
    }

    public boolean getAlwaysUseSession() {
        return alwaysUseSession;
    }

    public void setAlwaysUseSession(boolean alwaysUseSession) {
        this.alwaysUseSession = alwaysUseSession;
    }

    /**
     * Return the cache authenticated Principals flag.
     *
     * @return <code>true</code> if authenticated Principals will be cached, otherwise <code>false</code>
     */
    public boolean getCache() {
        return this.cache;
    }

    /**
     * Set the cache authenticated Principals flag.
     *
     * @param cache The new cache flag
     */
    public void setCache(boolean cache) {
        this.cache = cache;
    }

    @Override
    public Container getContainer() {
        return this.context;
    }

    @Override
    public void setContainer(Container container) {
        if (container != null && !(container instanceof Context)) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(sm.getString("authenticator.notContext"));
        }
        super.setContainer(container);
        this.context = (Context) container;
    }

    /**
     * Return the flag that states if we add headers to disable caching by proxies.
     *
     * @return <code>true</code> if the headers will be added, otherwise <code>false</code>
     */
    public boolean getDisableProxyCaching() {
        return disableProxyCaching;
    }

    /**
     * Set the value of the flag that states if we add headers to disable caching by proxies.
     *
     * @param nocache <code>true</code> if we add headers to disable proxy caching, <code>false</code> if we leave the
     *                    headers alone.
     */
    public void setDisableProxyCaching(boolean nocache) {
        disableProxyCaching = nocache;
    }

    /**
     * Return the flag that states, if proxy caching is disabled, what headers we add to disable the caching.
     *
     * @return <code>true</code> if a Pragma header should be used, otherwise <code>false</code>
     */
    public boolean getSecurePagesWithPragma() {
        return securePagesWithPragma;
    }

    /**
     * Set the value of the flag that states what headers we add to disable proxy caching.
     *
     * @param securePagesWithPragma <code>true</code> if we add headers which are incompatible with downloading office
     *                                  documents in IE under SSL but which fix a caching problem in Mozilla.
     */
    public void setSecurePagesWithPragma(boolean securePagesWithPragma) {
        this.securePagesWithPragma = securePagesWithPragma;
    }

    /**
     * Return the flag that states if we should change the session ID of an existing session upon successful
     * authentication.
     *
     * @return <code>true</code> to change session ID upon successful authentication, <code>false</code> to do not
     *             perform the change.
     */
    public boolean getChangeSessionIdOnAuthentication() {
        return changeSessionIdOnAuthentication;
    }

    /**
     * Set the value of the flag that states if we should change the session ID of an existing session upon successful
     * authentication.
     *
     * @param changeSessionIdOnAuthentication <code>true</code> to change session ID upon successful authentication,
     *                                            <code>false</code> to do not perform the change.
     */
    public void setChangeSessionIdOnAuthentication(boolean changeSessionIdOnAuthentication) {
        this.changeSessionIdOnAuthentication = changeSessionIdOnAuthentication;
    }

    /**
     * Return the secure random number generator class name.
     *
     * @return The fully qualified name of the SecureRandom implementation to use
     */
    public String getSecureRandomClass() {
        return this.secureRandomClass;
    }

    /**
     * Set the secure random number generator class name.
     *
     * @param secureRandomClass The new secure random number generator class name
     */
    public void setSecureRandomClass(String secureRandomClass) {
        this.secureRandomClass = secureRandomClass;
    }

    /**
     * Return the secure random number generator algorithm name.
     *
     * @return The name of the SecureRandom algorithm used
     */
    public String getSecureRandomAlgorithm() {
        return secureRandomAlgorithm;
    }

    /**
     * Set the secure random number generator algorithm name.
     *
     * @param secureRandomAlgorithm The new secure random number generator algorithm name
     */
    public void setSecureRandomAlgorithm(String secureRandomAlgorithm) {
        this.secureRandomAlgorithm = secureRandomAlgorithm;
    }

    /**
     * Return the secure random number generator provider name.
     *
     * @return The name of the SecureRandom provider
     */
    public String getSecureRandomProvider() {
        return secureRandomProvider;
    }

    /**
     * Set the secure random number generator provider name.
     *
     * @param secureRandomProvider The new secure random number generator provider name
     */
    public void setSecureRandomProvider(String secureRandomProvider) {
        this.secureRandomProvider = secureRandomProvider;
    }

    /**
     * Return the JASPIC callback handler class name
     *
     * @return The name of the JASPIC callback handler
     */
    public String getJaspicCallbackHandlerClass() {
        return jaspicCallbackHandlerClass;
    }

    /**
     * Set the JASPIC callback handler class name
     *
     * @param jaspicCallbackHandlerClass The new JASPIC callback handler class name
     */
    public void setJaspicCallbackHandlerClass(String jaspicCallbackHandlerClass) {
        this.jaspicCallbackHandlerClass = jaspicCallbackHandlerClass;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the flag whether authentication information will be sent to a reverse proxy on a forwarded request.
     *
     * @return {@code true} if response headers shall be sent, {@code false} otherwise
     */
    public boolean isSendAuthInfoResponseHeaders() {
        return sendAuthInfoResponseHeaders;
    }

    /**
     * Sets the flag whether authentication information will be send to a reverse proxy on a forwarded request.
     *
     * @param sendAuthInfoResponseHeaders {@code true} if response headers shall be sent, {@code false} otherwise
     */
    public void setSendAuthInfoResponseHeaders(boolean sendAuthInfoResponseHeaders) {
        this.sendAuthInfoResponseHeaders = sendAuthInfoResponseHeaders;
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------- Public Methods

    /**
     * Enforce the security restrictions in the web application deployment descriptor of our associated Context.
     *
     * @param request  Request to be processed
     * @param response Response to be processed
     *
     * @exception IOException      if an input/output error occurs
     * @exception ServletException if thrown by a processing element
     */
    @Override
    public void invoke(Request request, Response response) throws IOException, ServletException {

        if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
            log.trace("Security checking request " + request.getMethod() + " " + request.getRequestURI());
        }

        // Have we got a cached authenticated Principal to record?
        if (cache) {
            Principal principal = request.getUserPrincipal();
            if (principal == null) {
                Session session = request.getSessionInternal(false);
                if (session != null) {
                    principal = session.getPrincipal();
                    if (principal != null) {
                        if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                            log.trace("We have cached auth type " + session.getAuthType() + " for principal " +
                                    principal);
                        }
                        request.setAuthType(session.getAuthType());
                        request.setUserPrincipal(principal);
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        boolean authRequired = isContinuationRequired(request);

        Realm realm = this.context.getRealm();
        // Is this request URI subject to a security constraint?
        SecurityConstraint[] constraints = realm.findSecurityConstraints(request, this.context);

        AuthConfigProvider jaspicProvider = getJaspicProvider();
        if (jaspicProvider != null) {
            authRequired = true;
        }

        if (constraints == null && !context.getPreemptiveAuthentication() && !authRequired) {
            if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                log.trace("Not subject to any constraint");
            }
            getNext().invoke(request, response);
            return;
        }

        // Make sure that constrained resources are not cached by web proxies
        // or browsers as caching can provide a security hole
        if (constraints != null && disableProxyCaching && !"POST".equalsIgnoreCase(request.getMethod())) {
            if (securePagesWithPragma) {
                // Note: These can cause problems with downloading files with IE
                response.setHeader("Pragma", "No-cache");
                response.setHeader("Cache-Control", "no-cache");
                response.setHeader("Expires", DATE_ONE);
            } else {
                response.setHeader("Cache-Control", "private");
            }
        }

        if (constraints != null) {
            // Enforce any user data constraint for this security constraint
            if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                log.trace("Calling hasUserDataPermission()");
            }
            if (!realm.hasUserDataPermission(request, response, constraints)) {
                if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                    log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.userDataPermissionFail"));
                }
                /*
                 * ASSERT: Authenticator already set the appropriate HTTP status code, so we do not have to do anything
                 * special
                 */
                return;
            }
        }

        // Since authenticate modifies the response on failure,
        // we have to check for allow-from-all first.
        boolean hasAuthConstraint = false;
        if (constraints != null) {
            hasAuthConstraint = true;
            for (int i = 0; i < constraints.length && hasAuthConstraint; i++) {
                if (!constraints[i].getAuthConstraint()) {
                    hasAuthConstraint = false;
                } else if (!constraints[i].getAllRoles() && !constraints[i].getAuthenticatedUsers()) {
                    String[] roles = constraints[i].findAuthRoles();
                    if (roles == null || roles.length == 0) {
                        hasAuthConstraint = false;
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        if (!authRequired && hasAuthConstraint) {
            authRequired = true;
        }

        if (!authRequired && context.getPreemptiveAuthentication() && isPreemptiveAuthPossible(request)) {
            authRequired = true;
        }

        JaspicState jaspicState = null;

        if ((authRequired || constraints != null) && allowCorsPreflightBypass(request)) {
            if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.corsBypass"));
            }
            getNext().invoke(request, response);
            return;
        }

        if (authRequired) {
            if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                log.trace("Calling authenticate()");
            }

            if (jaspicProvider != null) {
                jaspicState = getJaspicState(jaspicProvider, request, response, hasAuthConstraint);
                if (jaspicState == null) {
                    return;
                }
            }

            if (jaspicProvider == null && !doAuthenticate(request, response) ||
                    jaspicProvider != null && !authenticateJaspic(request, response, jaspicState, false)) {
                if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                    log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.authenticationFail"));
                }
                /*
                 * ASSERT: Authenticator already set the appropriate HTTP status code, so we do not have to do anything
                 * special
                 */
                return;
            }

        }

        if (constraints != null) {
            if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                log.trace("Calling accessControl()");
            }
            if (!realm.hasResourcePermission(request, response, constraints, this.context)) {
                if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                    log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.userPermissionFail", request.getUserPrincipal().getName()));
                }
                /*
                 * ASSERT: AccessControl method has already set the appropriate HTTP status code, so we do not have to
                 * do anything special
                 */
                return;
            }
        }

        // Any and all specified constraints have been satisfied
        if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
            log.trace("Successfully passed all security constraints");
        }
        getNext().invoke(request, response);

        if (jaspicProvider != null) {
            secureResponseJspic(request, response, jaspicState);
        }
    }


    protected boolean allowCorsPreflightBypass(Request request) {
        boolean allowBypass = false;

        if (allowCorsPreflight != AllowCorsPreflight.NEVER) {
            // First check to see if this is a CORS Preflight request
            // This is a subset of the tests in CorsFilter.checkRequestType
            if ("OPTIONS".equals(request.getMethod())) {
                String originHeader = request.getHeader(CorsFilter.REQUEST_HEADER_ORIGIN);
                if (originHeader != null && !originHeader.isEmpty() && RequestUtil.isValidOrigin(originHeader) &&
                        !RequestUtil.isSameOrigin(request, originHeader)) {
                    String accessControlRequestMethodHeader =
                            request.getHeader(CorsFilter.REQUEST_HEADER_ACCESS_CONTROL_REQUEST_METHOD);
                    if (accessControlRequestMethodHeader != null && !accessControlRequestMethodHeader.isEmpty()) {
                        // This appears to be a CORS Preflight request
                        if (allowCorsPreflight == AllowCorsPreflight.ALWAYS) {
                            allowBypass = true;
                        } else if (allowCorsPreflight == AllowCorsPreflight.FILTER) {
                            if (DispatcherType.REQUEST == request.getDispatcherType()) {
                                // Look at Filter configuration for the Context
                                // Can't cache this unless we add a listener to
                                // the Context to clear the cache on reload
                                for (FilterDef filterDef : request.getContext().findFilterDefs()) {
                                    if (CorsFilter.class.getName().equals(filterDef.getFilterClass())) {
                                        for (FilterMap filterMap : context.findFilterMaps()) {
                                            if (filterMap.getFilterName().equals(filterDef.getFilterName())) {
                                                if ((filterMap.getDispatcherMapping() & FilterMap.REQUEST) > 0) {
                                                    String requestPath = FilterUtil.getRequestPath(request);
                                                    if (FilterUtil.matchFiltersURL(filterMap, requestPath)) {
                                                        allowBypass = true;
                                                    }
                                                }
                                                // Found mappings for CORS filter.
                                                // No need to look further
                                                break;
                                            }
                                        }
                                        // Found the CORS filter. No need to look further.
                                        break;
                                    }
                                }
                            }
                        } else {
                            // Unexpected enum type
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        return allowBypass;
    }


    @Override
    public boolean authenticate(Request request, HttpServletResponse httpResponse) throws IOException {

        AuthConfigProvider jaspicProvider = getJaspicProvider();

        if (jaspicProvider == null) {
            return doAuthenticate(request, httpResponse);
        } else {
            Response response = request.getResponse();
            JaspicState jaspicState = getJaspicState(jaspicProvider, request, response, true);
            if (jaspicState == null) {
                return false;
            }

            boolean result = authenticateJaspic(request, response, jaspicState, true);

            secureResponseJspic(request, response, jaspicState);

            return result;
        }
    }


    private void secureResponseJspic(Request request, Response response, JaspicState state) {
        try {
            state.serverAuthContext.secureResponse(state.messageInfo, null);
            request.setRequest((HttpServletRequest) state.messageInfo.getRequestMessage());
            response.setResponse((HttpServletResponse) state.messageInfo.getResponseMessage());
        } catch (AuthException e) {
            log.warn(sm.getString("authenticator.jaspicSecureResponseFail"), e);
        }
    }


    private JaspicState getJaspicState(AuthConfigProvider jaspicProvider, Request request, Response response,
            boolean authMandatory) throws IOException {
        JaspicState jaspicState = new JaspicState();

        jaspicState.messageInfo = new MessageInfoImpl(request.getRequest(), response.getResponse(), authMandatory);

        try {
            CallbackHandler callbackHandler = getCallbackHandler();
            ServerAuthConfig serverAuthConfig =
                    jaspicProvider.getServerAuthConfig("HttpServlet", jaspicAppContextID, callbackHandler);
            String authContextID = serverAuthConfig.getAuthContextID(jaspicState.messageInfo);
            jaspicState.serverAuthContext = serverAuthConfig.getAuthContext(authContextID, null, null);
        } catch (AuthException e) {
            log.warn(sm.getString("authenticator.jaspicServerAuthContextFail"), e);
            response.sendError(HttpServletResponse.SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
            return null;
        }

        return jaspicState;
    }


    private CallbackHandler getCallbackHandler() {
        CallbackHandler handler = jaspicCallbackHandler;
        if (handler == null) {
            handler = createCallbackHandler();
        }
        return handler;
    }


    private CallbackHandler createCallbackHandler() {
        CallbackHandler callbackHandler = null;

        Class<?> clazz = null;
        try {
            clazz = Class.forName(jaspicCallbackHandlerClass, true, Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader());
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
            // Proceed with the retry below
        }

        try {
            if (clazz == null) {
                clazz = Class.forName(jaspicCallbackHandlerClass);
            }
            callbackHandler = (CallbackHandler) clazz.getConstructor().newInstance();
        } catch (ReflectiveOperationException e) {
            throw new SecurityException(e);
        }

        if (callbackHandler instanceof Contained) {
            ((Contained) callbackHandler).setContainer(getContainer());
        }

        jaspicCallbackHandler = callbackHandler;
        return callbackHandler;
    }


    // ------------------------------------------------------ Protected Methods

    /**
     * Provided for sub-classes to implement their specific authentication mechanism.
     *
     * @param request  The request that triggered the authentication
     * @param response The response associated with the request
     *
     * @return {@code true} if the the user was authenticated, otherwise {@code
     *         false}, in which case an authentication challenge will have been written to the response
     *
     * @throws IOException If an I/O problem occurred during the authentication process
     */
    protected abstract boolean doAuthenticate(Request request, HttpServletResponse response) throws IOException;


    /**
     * Does this authenticator require that {@link #authenticate(Request, HttpServletResponse)} is called to continue an
     * authentication process that started in a previous request?
     *
     * @param request The request currently being processed
     *
     * @return {@code true} if authenticate() must be called, otherwise {@code false}
     */
    protected boolean isContinuationRequired(Request request) {
        return false;
    }


    /**
     * Associate the specified single sign on identifier with the specified Session.
     *
     * @param ssoId   Single sign on identifier
     * @param session Session to be associated
     */
    protected void associate(String ssoId, Session session) {

        if (sso == null) {
            return;
        }
        sso.associate(ssoId, session);

    }


    private boolean authenticateJaspic(Request request, Response response, JaspicState state,
            boolean requirePrincipal) {

        boolean cachedAuth = checkForCachedAuthentication(request, response, false);
        Subject client = new Subject();
        AuthStatus authStatus;
        try {
            authStatus = state.serverAuthContext.validateRequest(state.messageInfo, client, null);
        } catch (AuthException e) {
            log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.loginFail"), e);
            return false;
        }

        request.setRequest((HttpServletRequest) state.messageInfo.getRequestMessage());
        response.setResponse((HttpServletResponse) state.messageInfo.getResponseMessage());

        if (authStatus == AuthStatus.SUCCESS) {
            GenericPrincipal principal = getPrincipal(client);
            if (log.isTraceEnabled()) {
                log.trace("Authenticated user: " + principal);
            }
            if (principal == null) {
                request.setUserPrincipal(null);
                request.setAuthType(null);
                if (requirePrincipal) {
                    return false;
                }
            } else if (cachedAuth == false || !principal.getUserPrincipal().equals(request.getUserPrincipal())) {
                // Skip registration if authentication credentials were
                // cached and the Principal did not change.

                // Check to see if any of the JASPIC properties were set
                Boolean register = null;
                String authType = "JASPIC";
                @SuppressWarnings("rawtypes") // JASPIC API uses raw types
                Map map = state.messageInfo.getMap();

                String registerValue = (String) map.get("jakarta.servlet.http.registerSession");
                if (registerValue != null) {
                    register = Boolean.valueOf(registerValue);
                }
                String authTypeValue = (String) map.get("jakarta.servlet.http.authType");
                if (authTypeValue != null) {
                    authType = authTypeValue;
                }

                /*
                 * Need to handle three cases. See https://bz.apache.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=64713 1.
                 * registerSession TRUE always use session, always cache 2. registerSession NOT SET config for session,
                 * config for cache 3. registerSession FALSE config for session, never cache
                 */
                if (register != null) {
                    register(request, response, principal, authType, null, null,
                            alwaysUseSession || register.booleanValue(), register.booleanValue());
                } else {
                    register(request, response, principal, authType, null, null);
                }
            }
            request.setNote(Constants.REQ_JASPIC_SUBJECT_NOTE, client);
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }


    private GenericPrincipal getPrincipal(Subject subject) {
        if (subject == null) {
            return null;
        }

        Set<GenericPrincipal> principals = subject.getPrivateCredentials(GenericPrincipal.class);
        if (principals.isEmpty()) {
            return null;
        }

        return principals.iterator().next();
    }


    /**
     * Check to see if the user has already been authenticated earlier in the processing chain or if there is enough
     * information available to authenticate the user without requiring further user interaction.
     *
     * @param request  The current request
     * @param response The current response
     * @param useSSO   Should information available from SSO be used to attempt to authenticate the current user?
     *
     * @return <code>true</code> if the user was authenticated via the cache, otherwise <code>false</code>
     */
    protected boolean checkForCachedAuthentication(Request request, HttpServletResponse response, boolean useSSO) {

        // Has the user already been authenticated?
        Principal principal = request.getUserPrincipal();
        String ssoId = (String) request.getNote(Constants.REQ_SSOID_NOTE);
        if (principal != null) {
            if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.check.found", principal.getName()));
            }
            // Associate the session with any existing SSO session. Even if
            // useSSO is false, this will ensure coordinated session
            // invalidation at log out.
            if (ssoId != null) {
                associate(ssoId, request.getSessionInternal(true));
            }
            return true;
        }

        // Is there an SSO session against which we can try to reauthenticate?
        if (useSSO && ssoId != null) {
            if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.check.sso", ssoId));
            }
            /*
             * Try to reauthenticate using data cached by SSO. If this fails, either the original SSO logon was of
             * DIGEST or SSL (which we can't reauthenticate ourselves because there is no cached username and password),
             * or the realm denied the user's reauthentication for some reason. In either case we have to prompt the
             * user for a logon
             */
            if (reauthenticateFromSSO(ssoId, request)) {
                return true;
            }
        }

        // Has the Connector provided a pre-authenticated Principal that now
        // needs to be authorized?
        if (request.getCoyoteRequest().getRemoteUserNeedsAuthorization()) {
            String username = request.getCoyoteRequest().getRemoteUser().toString();
            if (username != null) {
                if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                    log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.check.authorize", username));
                }
                Principal authorized = context.getRealm().authenticate(username);
                if (authorized == null) {
                    // Realm doesn't recognise user. Create a user with no roles
                    // from the authenticated user name
                    if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                        log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.check.authorizeFail", username));
                    }
                    authorized = new GenericPrincipal(username);
                }
                String authType = request.getAuthType();
                if (authType == null || authType.length() == 0) {
                    authType = getAuthMethod();
                }
                register(request, response, authorized, authType, username, null);
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Attempts reauthentication to the <code>Realm</code> using the credentials included in argument
     * <code>entry</code>.
     *
     * @param ssoId   identifier of SingleSignOn session with which the caller is associated
     * @param request the request that needs to be authenticated
     *
     * @return <code>true</code> if the reauthentication from SSL occurred
     */
    protected boolean reauthenticateFromSSO(String ssoId, Request request) {

        if (sso == null || ssoId == null) {
            return false;
        }

        boolean reauthenticated = false;

        Container parent = getContainer();
        if (parent != null) {
            Realm realm = parent.getRealm();
            if (realm != null) {
                reauthenticated = sso.reauthenticate(ssoId, realm, request);
            }
        }

        if (reauthenticated) {
            associate(ssoId, request.getSessionInternal(true));

            if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
                log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.reauthentication", request.getUserPrincipal().getName(),
                        request.getAuthType()));
            }
        }

        return reauthenticated;
    }

    /**
     * Register an authenticated Principal and authentication type in our request, in the current session (if there is
     * one), and with our SingleSignOn valve, if there is one. Set the appropriate cookie to be returned.
     *
     * @param request   The servlet request we are processing
     * @param response  The servlet response we are generating
     * @param principal The authenticated Principal to be registered
     * @param authType  The authentication type to be registered
     * @param username  Username used to authenticate (if any)
     * @param password  Password used to authenticate (if any)
     */
    public void register(Request request, HttpServletResponse response, Principal principal, String authType,
            String username, String password) {
        register(request, response, principal, authType, username, password, alwaysUseSession, cache);
    }


    /**
     * Register an authenticated Principal and authentication type in our request, in the current session (if there is
     * one), and with our SingleSignOn valve, if there is one. Set the appropriate cookie to be returned.
     *
     * @param request          The servlet request we are processing
     * @param response         The servlet response we are generating
     * @param principal        The authenticated Principal to be registered
     * @param authType         The authentication type to be registered
     * @param username         Username used to authenticate (if any)
     * @param password         Password used to authenticate (if any)
     * @param alwaysUseSession Should a session always be used once a user is authenticated?
     * @param cache            Should we cache authenticated Principals if the request is part of an HTTP session?
     */
    protected void register(Request request, HttpServletResponse response, Principal principal, String authType,
            String username, String password, boolean alwaysUseSession, boolean cache) {

        if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
            String name = (principal == null) ? "none" : principal.getName();
            log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.authentication", name, authType));
        }

        // Cache the authentication information in our request
        request.setAuthType(authType);
        request.setUserPrincipal(principal);

        if (sendAuthInfoResponseHeaders &&
                Boolean.TRUE.equals(request.getAttribute(Globals.REQUEST_FORWARDED_ATTRIBUTE))) {
            response.setHeader("remote-user", request.getRemoteUser());
            response.setHeader("auth-type", request.getAuthType());
        }

        Session session = request.getSessionInternal(false);

        if (session != null) {
            // If the principal is null then this is a logout. No need to change
            // the session ID. See BZ 59043.
            if (getChangeSessionIdOnAuthentication() && principal != null) {
                String newSessionId = changeSessionID(request, session);
                // If the current session ID is being tracked, update it.
                if (session.getNote(Constants.SESSION_ID_NOTE) != null) {
                    session.setNote(Constants.SESSION_ID_NOTE, newSessionId);
                }
            }
        } else if (alwaysUseSession) {
            session = request.getSessionInternal(true);
        }

        // Cache the authentication information in our session, if any
        if (session != null && cache) {
            session.setAuthType(authType);
            session.setPrincipal(principal);
        }

        // Construct a cookie to be returned to the client
        if (sso == null) {
            return;
        }

        // Only create a new SSO entry if the SSO did not already set a note
        // for an existing entry (as it would do with subsequent requests
        // for DIGEST and SSL authenticated contexts)
        String ssoId = (String) request.getNote(Constants.REQ_SSOID_NOTE);
        if (ssoId == null) {
            // Construct a cookie to be returned to the client
            ssoId = sessionIdGenerator.generateSessionId();
            Cookie cookie = new Cookie(sso.getCookieName(), ssoId);
            cookie.setMaxAge(-1);
            cookie.setPath("/");

            // Bugzilla 41217
            cookie.setSecure(request.isSecure());

            // Bugzilla 34724
            String ssoDomain = sso.getCookieDomain();
            if (ssoDomain != null) {
                cookie.setDomain(ssoDomain);
            }

            // Configure httpOnly on SSO cookie using same rules as session cookies
            if (request.getServletContext().getSessionCookieConfig().isHttpOnly() ||
                    request.getContext().getUseHttpOnly()) {
                cookie.setHttpOnly(true);
            }

            // Configure Partitioned on SSO cookie using same rules as session cookies
            cookie.setAttribute(Constants.COOKIE_PARTITIONED_ATTR,
                    Boolean.toString(request.getContext().getUsePartitioned()));

            response.addCookie(cookie);

            // Register this principal with our SSO valve
            sso.register(ssoId, principal, authType, username, password);
            request.setNote(Constants.REQ_SSOID_NOTE, ssoId);

        } else {
            if (principal == null) {
                // Registering a programmatic logout
                sso.deregister(ssoId);
                request.removeNote(Constants.REQ_SSOID_NOTE);
                return;
            } else {
                // Update the SSO session with the latest authentication data
                sso.update(ssoId, principal, authType, username, password);
            }
        }

        // Fix for Bug 10040
        // Always associate a session with a new SSO registration.
        // SSO entries are only removed from the SSO registry map when
        // associated sessions are destroyed; if a new SSO entry is created
        // above for this request and the user never revisits the context, the
        // SSO entry will never be cleared if we don't associate the session
        if (session == null) {
            session = request.getSessionInternal(true);
        }
        sso.associate(ssoId, session);

    }


    protected String changeSessionID(Request request, Session session) {
        String oldId = null;
        if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
            oldId = session.getId();
        }
        String newId = request.changeSessionId();
        if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
            log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.changeSessionId", oldId, newId));
        }
        return newId;
    }


    @Override
    public void login(String username, String password, Request request) throws ServletException {
        Principal principal = doLogin(request, username, password);
        register(request, request.getResponse(), principal, getAuthMethod(), username, password);
    }

    /**
     * Return the authentication method, which is vendor-specific and not defined by HttpServletRequest.
     *
     * @return the authentication method, which is vendor-specific and not defined by HttpServletRequest.
     */
    protected abstract String getAuthMethod();

    /**
     * Process the login request.
     *
     * @param request  Associated request
     * @param username The user
     * @param password The password
     *
     * @return The authenticated Principal
     *
     * @throws ServletException No principal was authenticated with the specified credentials
     */
    protected Principal doLogin(Request request, String username, String password) throws ServletException {
        Principal p = context.getRealm().authenticate(username, password);
        if (p == null) {
            throw new ServletException(sm.getString("authenticator.loginFail"));
        }
        return p;
    }

    @Override
    public void logout(Request request) {
        AuthConfigProvider provider = getJaspicProvider();
        if (provider != null) {
            MessageInfo messageInfo = new MessageInfoImpl(request, request.getResponse(), true);
            Subject client = (Subject) request.getNote(Constants.REQ_JASPIC_SUBJECT_NOTE);
            if (client != null) {
                ServerAuthContext serverAuthContext;
                try {
                    ServerAuthConfig serverAuthConfig =
                            provider.getServerAuthConfig("HttpServlet", jaspicAppContextID, getCallbackHandler());
                    String authContextID = serverAuthConfig.getAuthContextID(messageInfo);
                    serverAuthContext = serverAuthConfig.getAuthContext(authContextID, null, null);
                    serverAuthContext.cleanSubject(messageInfo, client);
                } catch (AuthException e) {
                    log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.jaspicCleanSubjectFail"), e);
                }
            }
        }

        Principal p = request.getPrincipal();
        if (p instanceof TomcatPrincipal) {
            try {
                ((TomcatPrincipal) p).logout();
            } catch (Throwable t) {
                ExceptionUtils.handleThrowable(t);
                log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.tomcatPrincipalLogoutFail"), t);
            }
        }

        register(request, request.getResponse(), null, null, null, null);
    }


    @Override
    protected void startInternal() throws LifecycleException {
        ServletContext servletContext = context.getServletContext();
        jaspicAppContextID = servletContext.getVirtualServerName() + " " + servletContext.getContextPath();

        // Look up the SingleSignOn implementation in our request processing
        // path, if there is one
        Container parent = context.getParent();
        while ((sso == null) && (parent != null)) {
            Valve valves[] = parent.getPipeline().getValves();
            for (Valve valve : valves) {
                if (valve instanceof SingleSignOn) {
                    sso = (SingleSignOn) valve;
                    break;
                }
            }
            if (sso == null) {
                parent = parent.getParent();
            }
        }
        if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
            if (sso != null) {
                log.debug(sm.getString("authenticator.sso", sso));
            } else {
                log.trace("No SingleSignOn Valve is present");
            }
        }

        sessionIdGenerator = new StandardSessionIdGenerator();
        sessionIdGenerator.setSecureRandomAlgorithm(getSecureRandomAlgorithm());
        sessionIdGenerator.setSecureRandomClass(getSecureRandomClass());
        sessionIdGenerator.setSecureRandomProvider(getSecureRandomProvider());

        super.startInternal();
    }


    @Override
    protected void stopInternal() throws LifecycleException {
        super.stopInternal();
        sso = null;
    }


    /**
     * Can the authenticator perform preemptive authentication for the given request?
     *
     * @param request The request to check for credentials
     *
     * @return {@code true} if preemptive authentication is possible, otherwise {@code false}
     */
    protected boolean isPreemptiveAuthPossible(Request request) {
        return false;
    }


    private AuthConfigProvider getJaspicProvider() {
        Optional<AuthConfigProvider> provider = jaspicProvider;
        if (provider == null) {
            provider = findJaspicProvider();
        }
        return provider.orElse(null);
    }


    private Optional<AuthConfigProvider> findJaspicProvider() {
        AuthConfigFactory factory = AuthConfigFactory.getFactory();
        Optional<AuthConfigProvider> provider;
        if (factory == null) {
            provider = Optional.empty();
        } else {
            provider = Optional.ofNullable(factory.getConfigProvider("HttpServlet", jaspicAppContextID, this));
        }
        jaspicProvider = provider;
        return provider;
    }


    @Override
    public void notify(String layer, String appContext) {
        findJaspicProvider();
    }


    private static class JaspicState {
        public MessageInfo messageInfo = null;
        public ServerAuthContext serverAuthContext = null;
    }


    protected enum AllowCorsPreflight {
        NEVER,
        FILTER,
        ALWAYS
    }
}